Koy Sanjaq (KS): What of your Jews away from Koy Sanjaq, citizen due to the fact about 1951 in Israel
Guidance comes from Robert Hoberman (individual interaction). It appears to be generally member of your Jewish languages away from a great many other places from the area as well, in addition to Aqra and you will Rawanduz.
Yet not, within dialect there is a highly unusual changes out of h to help you h about 3rd person only one possessive suffixes: resIh ‘his head’
Azerbaijan (Azer): The words of Jews out of Iranian Azerbaijan, and teams for the Urmi, Salmas, Basqale, Mahabad, and you will Yuksekova. Data is out of Garbell (1965).
Halabja (Hala): The language of the Jews out of Halabja to the Iran-Iraq edging. This is very around the Jewish languages of the other towns of area, and Saqqiz, Suleimaniya, Sanandaj, Baneh, and you will Panjwin. Information comes from my personal notes.
We are going to examine these types of languages with regard to twenty-four phonological, morphological, morpho-lexical, and you can lexical standards. Adopting the Hetzron (1976, 98), we have chose merely designs as requirements having group. You will find https://www.datingranking.net/es/citas-universitarias picked a great disproportionate number of morphological requirements, and now we will let them have unique pounds, again pursuing the Hetzron, but other shared designs could well be considered as well.
Note and the harder preservation plus installation out-of into the Koy Sanjaq stated because of the Hoberman (1985)
Even as we evaluate the latest languages of NENA we’re going to just be sure to influence brand new the amount that the new dialects share a definite development hence is different from Turoyo and you can Mandaic. Meanwhile, we are going to select bundles out of isoglosses inside NENA.
(1) Be concerned tends to be penultimate in all the brand new NA dialects, in addition to Turoyo and you will Mandaic but not regarding the around three easternmost Jewish dialects, Jewish Azerbaijani, Koy Sanjaq, and you may Halabja, which worry the very last syllable. This type of languages see, along these lines, such as many more (Garbell 1965), showing an abnormally solid dictate regarding Kurdish.
(2) Most of the NENA dialects provides merged h and you may x. Into the Hertevin the result is h, and every-where otherwise it is x: Hertevin haye ‘life’ (Jastrow 1988, 189) and you may dmehli ‘I slept’ (Jastrow 1988, 18), Tkhuma xa:[Theta]a good ‘new’, Jilu ptIxli ‘I opened’ (Fox 1992, 45), and +damxotu ‘you sleep’ (Fox 1992, 55).(4)
Each other Turoyo and Mandaic retain separate h and x. Certain NENA dialects has reintroduced h since the a credit of Kurdish or Arabic otherwise of Traditional Syriac or Hebrew.(5) But not, new passed down language continuously reveals x. Eg, into the Tisqopa you’ll find borrowed Arabic words, including sahabi ‘friend’, which have h, however, passed down conditions instance laxma ‘bread’ constantly inform you x. (6)
(3) All of the NENA languages but Hertevin and you will Zakho have forfeit very era away from handed down. Such, during the Aradhin we find arba ‘four’, upra ‘earth’ corresponding to Syriac arb a great and afra. For the Hertevin plus in Zakho, passed on was regularly ?: Hertevin therefore?a beneficial ‘seven’ (Jastrow 1988, 99), Zakho sme?la ‘she heard’ (Meehan and you can Alon 1979, 189). In a lot of almost every other languages most are maintained while the ?, and you can, regarding people, is gone entirely. Specific languages features reintroduced borrowed out of Arabic otherwise Kurdish. Like, Halabja provides ayza ‘good’.
(4) For the earlier dialects away from Aramaic, as in Tiberian Hebrew, t turned [Theta] just after a great vowel. That it alternation might have been lexicalized into the NENA, having possibly t or [Theta] distribute courtesy whole paradigms, if or not preceded by the a good vowel or otherwise not. Such, from inside the Aradhin new verb ‘come’ is now offering [Theta] throughout: a[Theta]ya ‘it (fem.) comes’, also [Theta]e:la ‘she came’ (Krotkoff 1982, 70, 74). Subsequent, in certain languages brand new phoneme [Theta] have gone through extra changes. In a number of dialects [Theta] features combined back to t, and also in others it’s become s if you don’t l.(7) In one single dialect, Jilu, it has become h right after which become erased except on start of a keyword. The three easternmost Jewish dialects show the fresh new shocking change from [Theta] to 1. The results ones transform is seen from the keyword ‘house’ and therefore looks in almost any languages just like the become:[Theta beneficial]an excellent (Tkhuma), biya (Jilu), beta (Hertevin), bela (Halabja), and you may besa (Sanandaj Christian).